khilafat

26 Dec

Khilafat Movement

 

 

 

Q Explain the reasons for the establishment of the Khilafat Movement. [7]                    (N2001/P1/2b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able  to score well. The reasons why the Khilafat Movement was  established were  well known and  most  candidates scored highly although there was a significant minority who ignored the question and  wrote all they knew on the topic.

 

 

 

Q Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7]                                                                (J2002/P1/3b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain why the Khilafat Movement was  founded.  Again  those candidates who  explained why scored highly,  whilst those who merely described all they knew about events before, during  and  after the War did not fare as well. There was  also  a significant minority of candidates who displayed evidence of reproducing material  from textbooks which had  been learnt off by heart.  These candidates reproduced a body  of knowledge about the background to the Movement and  in the final two lines of their answers listed two or three  reasons why it was founded. Candidates who do this will not score highly since they constantly fail to select relevant information which is focussed on the question.

 

 

 

Q Was the withdrawal of Gandhi’s support from the Khilafat Movement the most important  reason for its failure? Explain your answer. [14]                                                                                                 (N2002/P1/2c)

 

Examiner Comments: However,  in part (c) many candidates fared less well. The details of the Khilafat Movement were  well known although there  were  a significant number of candidates who were  unable to explain  why it failed.  It is one  thing to describe the role of Gandhi or the migration  to Afghanistan, but  another to actually  explain  why these led  to the  failure of the Movement.  Many others simply ignored the  requirements of the question and  wrote  all they knew on the topic.

 

 

 

Q Why did the Khilafat Movement fail? [7]                                                                        (N2003/P1/3b)

 

Examiner  Comments:  In part  (b) the  question required candidates  to explain  the  reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed.  This is a very well known topic  and  those candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly, whilst those who merely identified them  in general terms  were  limited to a level 2 mark of four.  It is one thing to describe the  role of Gandhi or the migration  to Afghanistan, but another to actually  explain  why these led to the failure of the Movement.  Many others simply  ignored the  question and  wrote  all they  knew  on the topic, which again attracted little credit and  wasted valuable time and  effort.

 

 

 

Q Was the Chaura Chauri incident of 1922 the most important  reason for the failure of the Khilafat

Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                                              (J2004/P1/2c)

 

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Examiner  Comments: Part (c) posed problems for some candidates usually  unnecessarily. The  question  focused on  the  reasons for the  failure  of the  Khilafat Movement.                                  For those candidates who had  been adequately prepared for the  examination this was  not a problem for them  and answers from these candidates were  focused, accurate and  relevant, gaining  high marks  especially where they were well explained. However  there  were many candidates who saw the words  Khilafat Movement and proceeded to write all they knew about its origins, causes and  events mainly in chronological order.  It was only when they reached a number of reasons for its failure that  they  started to attract marks.   However  these answers were  often descriptive, lacking  explanation and  as a  result  failed  to achieve half marks.   Candidates who adopt this approach often find that time for the rest  of their answers becomes tight and unnecessary stress is caused for them.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two factors. Also produces a judgement or evaluation. Chauri Chaura was a village in the United Province  where  trouble  started between the police  and  a mob.  Gandhi, who was in jail at the time was so upset by this incident that he called off the non-cooperation movement. This infuriated  the Muslims who saw this action  as taking the pressure off the British Government and weakening the Movement. Its failure was also brought about when  thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan in a religious  protest against the British government. The Afghan  government refused to allow all the refugees to settle.  Many of those who returned to India died  on the journey back or found themselves homeless. Thus Muslim support for the Khilafat Movement fell away.  Its failure was  also  brought about by the decision of the Muslim Mustafa  Kamal Ataturk to form a nationalist  government in Turkey but the end had been seen in the refusal of Lloyd George to accept the demands of the Movement.

 

 

 

Q Was the Khilafat Movement founded because the Muslims feared the break  up of Turkey after the First World War? Explain your answer. [14]                                                                              (J2005/P1/2c)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (c) there were a number of problems. The question focused on the reasons for the reasons for the foundation of the Khilafat Movement. For those candidates who had  been adequately prepared for the  examination this caused few problems for them and  answers from these candidates were  focused,  accurate and  relevant.  However,  there were many candidates who saw the words  Khilafat Movement and proceeded to write all they knew  about its origins,  causes and  events mainly in chronological order.   As a  result  most answers were  merely  descriptive and  only partially relevant, often gaining  no more  than  half marks as a result.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two factors (Turkey to be  included for maximum  marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and  were not prepared to see Turkey split up  after  the  War  and  thus  the  Caliph  abolished.  They feared this would  happen when  the British Government promised that the status of the Caliph  would be  respected in order  to get the Muslims to fight alongside the Allies during WW1. The Muslims expressed their views to the British government during the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. However,  this promise was not kept at the end  of the war since the Turkish Empire was broken  up.  Also the  institution of the  Caliphate was  to be  demolished. After the  War ended reports from Europe suggested that the British and French wanted to punish the Turks for their support of the Germans. The imprisonment of several Indian Muslims during  the War also contributed to the anger felt. As a result the Khalifat Movement was founded.

 

 

 

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Q Explain why the Khilafat Movement had  failed by 1924.  [7]                                       (J2006/P1/3b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part  (b) the  question required candidates  to explain  why the  Khi- lafat Movement had  failed  by 1924.   Again  many  candidates who were  well prepared found little difficulty in their answers.  However  there  was  a temptation for others to write about the Movement as a whole, or at best fail to explain why, for example, the Hijrat Movement led to failure of the  Khilafat Movement.  Merely describing the  Hijrat Movement did  not answer the question and  only attracted a Level 2 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

Gandhi decided that  the  Swaraj  Movement was  becoming too  violent following the  Chaura Chari incident and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted them  to stay  and  fight for their cause. The migration  was  a failure.  The Afghan government was  hostile  to the migrants who on their return found their homes and  jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims.  Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal  Ataturk abolished the  institution of the Caliph  in 1924 so ending the Movement.

 

 

Q Was the abolition of the institution of the caliphate in 1924 the main reason for the failure of the

Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                               (N2006/P1/2c)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (c) focused on the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Move- ment.  A reason was given – the abolition of the caliphate in 1924 – and  the question required candidates  to explain  why such  reasons led  to the  Movement’s failure.                                   Candidates were NOT required to describe the  Movement’s progress from 1919.   Many described the  details of the Movement from beginning to end,  missing completely the point of the question which specifically focused on the reasons for failure. On the other hand, some answers were focused, accurate and  relevant.

Marking Scheme:  Explains  at  least  two factors (abolition  of caliphate to be  included for maximum  marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Gandhi decided that  the  Swaraj  Movement was  becoming too  violent following the  Chaura Chari incident and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted them  to stay  and  fight for their cause. The migration  was  a failure.  The Afghan government was  hostile  to the migrants who on their return found their homes and  jobs occupied, which dispirited the Muslims.  Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal  Ataturk abolished the  institution of the Caliph  in 1924 so ending the Movement as the Muslims no longer  had  a cause for which to fight.

 

 

Q ‘The Khilafat Movement failed  by 1924  because of poor  leadership.’ Do you agree?  Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                                                                                                (N2008/P1/2c)

Examiner  Comments: Part (c) saw many fail to explain  their answers sufficiently.  This ques- tion focused on the reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed.  For those who had  adequately prepared for the examination, this question caused few problems. Answers from these candi- dates were focused, accurate and  relevant – and many  scored high Level 4. However,  many merely described the Movement from beginning to end.  Merely describing the Hijrat was NOT answering the question – only identifying/describing a reason met the requirements. In order to gain a Level 3 or 4 mark, a candidate needed to explain  why the failure of the Hijrat helped to bring about the failure of the Khilafat Movement.

 

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Marking Scheme: Explains at least  two factors, poor leadership to be explained for maximum marks.  Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Some of the leaders including Maulana Muhammad Ali were imprisoned in 1921 which made the  organisation less  effective.   Also by joining with Hindus,  the  objectives of the  Movement were made less  clear  since Hindus, and Ghandi especially, were seen as using it for their own ends and,  it was  thought, didn’t have  the interests of Muslims at heart.  Gandhi decided that the  Swaraj  Movement was  becoming too violent following the  Chaura Chari  incident and  so called off his support.  In 1920  the  Muslim migration  (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place.  The Muslim League opposed this as they  wanted people to stay  and  fight for their cause.  The migration  was  a failure.   The Afghan  government was  hostile  to the  migrants who on their return found  their homes and jobs  occupied, which  dispirited the  Muslims.   Finally, the  new Turkish government under Kemal  Ataturk abolished the  institution  of the  Caliph  in 1924,  so ending the Movement.

 

 

Q Explain the reasons for the failure of the Khilafat Movement. [7]                                (J2009/P1/4b)

Examiner  Comments: In (b),  candidates had  to explain  why the  Khilafat Movement failed. Generally, these responses were  well explained and  often  with greater confidence than  the question that often appears as part (c) one.  As such most  candidates were able  to access a mark in Level 3.  However,  it is important  recognise that the question requires an explanation of why, for example, the Chaura Chari incident caused its failure rather than  a description of these events.

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

Gandhi decided that  the  Swaraj  Movement was  becoming too  violent following the  Chaura Chari incident and  withdrew his support. In 1920,  the Muslim migration  (hijrat) to Afghanistan happened. The Muslim League opposed this, wanting Muslims to stay and fight for their cause. The migration was a failure. The Afghan government was hostile to the migrants, who on their return  found  their homes and  jobs  occupied  which dispirited the  Muslims.   Finally, the  new Turkish government (Kemal Ataturk) abolished the Caliphate, so ending the Movement.

 

 

Q Was the abolition of the institution of the caliphate in 1924 the main reason for the failure of the

Khilafat Movement? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                               (Specimen 2010/P1/2c)

Marking Scheme:  Explains  at  least  two factors (abolition  of caliphate to be  included for maximum  marks). Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Gandhi decided that  the  Swaraj  Movement was  becoming too violent (following the  Chaura Chari incident) and so called off his support. In 1920 the Muslim migration (hijrat) to Afghanistan took place. The Muslim League opposed this as they wanted Muslims to stay and fight for their cause. The migration  was  a failure.  The Afghan government was  hostile  to the migrants who on their return found their homes and  jobs occupied, which dispirited the Muslims.  Finally the new Turkish government under Kemal Ataturk abolished the institution of the Caliph  in 1924, so ending the Movement as Muslims no longer  had  a cause for which to fight.

 

 

Q Why was the Khilafat Movement founded? [7]                                                                (J2010/P1/2b)

Examiner  Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons why the the Khilafat Movement was founded. For those candidates who had  been well prepared for the examina- tion, this caused little or no problems and many answers from these candidates were accurate

 

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and relevant, scoring maximum marks.  However, there was a significant minority of candidates who found  some difficulty in being able  to focus  their answer on the  question posed.  As a result,  many  answers were narratives of the  events of the  Movement from the  beginning of World War One  up to 1924,  some of which was relevant and  marks  were gained accordingly. However,  such candidates must  understand the  nature  of the question stated and  answer it accordingly.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and  were not prepared to see Turkey split up  after  the  War  and  thus  the  Caliph  abolished.  They expressed their views  to the  British government during  the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. After the War ended reports from Europe  suggested that the British and  French wanted to punish the  Turks for their support of the  Germans. As a result  the Khalifat Movement was  founded. Muslims held the Caliphate of Turkey in high regard and  were not prepared to see Turkey split up  after  the  War and  thus  the  Caliph  abolished.  They expressed their views  to the  British government during  the War who promised that no harm would be done to the Caliphate. After the War ended reports from Europe  suggested that the British and  French wanted to punish the Turks for their support of the Germans. As a result the Khalifat Movement was founded.

 

 

 

Q Was the migration to Afghanistan the most important reason why the Khilafat Movement failed?

Explain your answer. [14]                                                                                                 (N2010/P1/3c)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (c) some candidates failed to explain  their answers sufficiently. This question focused on the reasons why the Khilafat Movement failed, including the migration to Afghanistan.   For those  candidates who  had  revised and  had  adequately prepared for the  examination this question caused  few  problems.  Answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and  relevant and  many scored a high Level 4 mark.  However,  many candi- dates merely described the events of the Movement. Describing the migration to Afghanistan or any other factor that led to the failure of the Movement was NOT answering the question as set – only identifying/describing a reason. In order  to gain a Level 3 or 4 mark the candidates needed to explain  why, for example, the  migration  to Afghanistan helped to bring  about the failure of the Khilafat Movement.

 

Marking Scheme:  Explains  at  least  two factors including Afghanistan.            Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Thousands of Muslims migrated to Afghanistan in a religious  protest against the British gov- ernment.  The  Afghan  government was  hostile  to the  migrants and  refused to allow all the refugees to settle.   Many of those who returned to India  died  on the  journey  back or found themselves homeless and  jobs occupied which dispirited the Muslims.  Thus Muslim support for the  Khilafat Movement fell away.   However  there  were  other reasons for its failure.  Some  of the  leaders  including Maulana Muhammad Ali were  imprisoned in 1921  which made the organisation less  effective.   Also by joining with the  Hindus  the  objectives of the  Movement were made less  clear  since the Hindus and Gandhi especially, were using it for their own ends and didn’t have the interests of the Muslims at heart.  Chauri Chaura was a village in the United Province where trouble started between the police and a mob.  Gandhi decided that the Swaraj Movement was  becoming too violent following the Chauri  Chaura incident and  so  called off his support. Its failure was  also  brought about by the decision of the Muslim Mustafa  Kamal Ataturk to form a nationalist  government in Turkey but the end  had  been seen in the refusal  of Lloyd George to accept the demands of the Movement.

 

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Q Source: A number of events that happened during  the years of the Khilafat Movement led to its failure.  During the years when  the Movement was  at its strongest, western dress and  hair styles  became less  popular and  the idea  grew that disregard of the law of Islam by the British made India a dar-ul-harb (enemy  territory). Thus thousands of Muslims set off on their hijrat.

 

Describe the hijrat. [4]                                                                                                       (N2011/P1/3a)

 

Examiner  Comments:  Again  this was  a popular question with a good level of knowledge shown  by most  candidates  generally achieving 3 or 4 marks  on the  part  (a) short  answer question on the hijrat.

 

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

1920 to Afghanistan, reminiscent of journey  of Holy Prophet from Makkah  to Madina,  told to leave  a foreign run state and  move  to an Islamic  one,  refused entry to Afghanistan, returned to villages  penniless, unable to buy back their homes and  land sold,  difficult to get jobs.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hello world!

18 Nov

 

Pakistan Movement during  the early 20th century

 

 

 

 

Q Explain the reasons for the establishment of the Muslim League in 1906.  [7]             (N2001/P1/3b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain  the reasons for the  establishment of the  Muslim League in 1906.   Those  candidates who explained specific reasons scored highly whilst those who merely identified them in general terms were limited to a level 2 mark of 4. There was also a significant minority of candidates who wrote long descriptive answers, which went back to the mid-nineteenth century, most of which was irrelevant.

 

 

 

Q How did the Hindus oppose the Partition of Bengal between 1905 and 1911?  [7] (N2002/P1/2b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able to score well. The ways in which the  Hindus  opposed the  Partition of Bengal were  well known  and  most  candidates scored highly.

 

 

 

Q Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906?  [7]                                                        (J2003/P1/2b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), most candidates were able  to score well as the reasons for the formation of the Muslim League were well known.  However,  many candidates wrote far too much  on this answer going  back to the 1880s and  the formation of the Congress Party.  Also a description of the events during  the Partition of Bengal was equally  unnecessary.

 

 

 

Q ‘The Morley-Minto reforms  were  the  most  important  of the  attempts by either  the  Muslims, Hindus  or the British government in seeking a solution  to the  problems in the  sub-continent between 1906 and  1920.’

Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                                         (J2003/P1/2c)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (c) a few problems arose over the reforms introduced between

1906 and  1920.  Rather  than merely describe every bit of detail on each of the reforms  Exam- iners were looking for candidates to explain  how important  each was to gain the higher  levels of marks.

 

 

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Q Why was the partition of Bengal reversed in 1911?  [7]                                                  (N2003/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part  (b),  many  candidates were  unable to score well and  wasted time and  effort in their answers. The question required candidates to explain  why the partition of Bengal was reversed in 1911. Answers should have  focused on the attempts of the Hindus  to influence the British by such methods as the Swadeshi Movement, attempts at assassination and  terrorist  activities.    Details  of why partition  came about  and  the  aftermath of this  was irrelevant and gained little or no credit.  It is essential that candidates read carefully the question set so that such mistakes do not occur.

 

 

 

Q Why was Bengal partitioned in 1905?  [7]                                                                         (J2004/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (b), most  candidates were able  to score well. The reasons for the partition of Bengal were well known.  However,  many  candidates wrote irrelevantly  on the reasons for partition  to be reversed.  Also a description of the  events during  the  Partition of Bengal was equally  unnecessary.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons

Of the 54 million people in Bengal 42 million were Hindus.  It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious  grounds and  also  because it was  becoming very large  and  producing significant administrative problems. By doing  this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at the time of a new British government in power.

 

 

 

Q Why did the Congress Party oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms  of 1906?  [7]           (N2004/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part  (b),  many  candidates were  unable to score well and  wasted time and effort in their answers by describing the Morley Minto Reforms.  The question required candidates to explain  why these were opposed by the Congress Party.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons

The British intended that the Indians could  voice their opinions in the Councils but the Hindus  wanted more responsibility which  the  government were  not prepared to give.  This annoyed the  Hindus  who were  looking towards self-rule.  The British accepted the  right of Muslims to have  separate electorates which also annoyed the Hindus  who saw it as a concession too far. Again self-rule was the goal for the whole country with the Hindus as the dominant force.  The Hindus  also  resented the relative  high position  of Muslims in the Councils despite their much  smaller  numbers.

 

 

 

Q ‘The Lucknow Pact of 1916 was the only beacon of hope for Hindu-Muslim unity between 1914 and  1930.’ Do you agree? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                                         (N2004/P1/2c)

 

Examiner  Comments:  In part  (c) many  candidates fared  better and  were  able  to clearly explain  those events between 1914  and  1930  which had  implications for Hindu-Muslim unity. This was  a well-answered question by those candidates who were  able  to comment on the various  reforms  and  events that  reflected on  Hindu-Muslim  unity rather  than  by those who merely described everything that happened between these years. It was pleasing to note that there  is an  increasing number of candidates who are  able  to make  a  relevant comment on these issues rather  than merely describe what happened.

 

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Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two factors. Lucknow  Pact  to be  included for maximum marks.  Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Lucknow Pact was an agreement on a scheme of constitutional reforms reached between Congress and the Muslim League. Both realised that co-operation was the only way to get the British government to agree to self-rule.  For the first time Hindus  acknowledged that Muslims had the right to a separate electorate and was therefore seen as a beacon of hope for the future. The Montague-Chelmsford Reforms  continued this hope by establishing legislative  councils in the provinces with a system of dyarchy. It was the first time that government had mentioned the  possibility  of self-rule  in all internal  matters.  The Reforms  disappointed Congress and Muslim League as both had hoped for more concessions. Relations between the two remained cordial  since  self-rule  was  still their aim and  could  only be  achieved through  cooperation. However the Nehru Report ended this hope. It was produced in response to demands for future constitutional reforms and the committee, which drew it up, had minimal Muslim representation. It reported on the future of the sub-Continent by looking to dominion status with no need for separate electorates.  This totally alienated the  Muslims  and  marked the  end  of any  future co-operation between them  and  the  Congress.  However  Jinnah made one  final attempt to preserve the relationship in his 14 Points of 1929 in which he proposed three  amendments to the report.  These proposals were  met with refusal  and  marked what he called the parting  of the ways.

 

 

 

Q Why was the Muslim League founded in 1906?  [7]                                                        (J2005/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments:  In part  (b),  the  reasons explained for the  founding  of the  Muslim League were  rather  limited.   Most candidates failed  to score more  than  level 3/5 with only the  very good scoring higher.  The weaker candidates tended to write irrelevantly  about the Partition of Bengal.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons

Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. It was  seen as an organisation which  would  only advance Hindu  views.   The Congress was demanding that India should be treated as a cultural whole and  Hindi should be declared the official language. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be  disorganised and  disunited. Even more  worrying was  the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism.  Therefore,  a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the Muslim League.

 

 

 

Q Why was the Partition of Bengal reversed in 1911?  [7]                                                  (N2005/P1/3b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b) the question required candidates to explain the reasons why the Partition of Bengal was  reversed in 1911.  These reasons were quite  well known by many candidates who were  able  to access near  maximum  marks.   However,  it was  important  that candidates remained focused and  avoided describing why Partition was  introduced.  What was  required were  answers that  dealt  with the  way in which the Hindus  opposed the  British and  so led to Partition.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Hindus  objection to Partition was  so great  that it caused the British to reconsider it. The Hindus  opposed it by holding  meetings and  mass rallies  which  put  pressure on the  British government.  They thought it was  a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and  rule’ on the  part  of the

 

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British. The Hindus  were  so angry  that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and  stated their boycott  of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’.  There was also an outbreak of terrorist activities.

 

 

 

Q Were the Morley-Minto reforms  the most  important  attempt by either  the Muslims, the Hindus  or the  British in seeking a  solution  to the  problems in the  sub-continent between 1906  and

1920?

Explain your answer. [14]                                                                                                 (N2005/P1/3c)

 

Examiner  Comments:  Part (c) seemed to cause some candidates a few problems.  Most candidates  knew the  facts  about the  political attempts to seek a solution  to the  problems in the  sub-continent between 1906 and 1920  by focusing on the  Morley-Minto and  Montague- Chelmsford reforms  and  the  Lucknow  Pact.    They  often  had  no problem describing these. However,  as before  in part (c) questions, the mark limit for such descriptive answers was only six. In order to access the higher marks  in Levels 3 and 4 candidates were required to explain  and make comments on such attempts rather than merely describe the political reforms.  Such questions are not easy ones to answer and hence only the better candidate were able to score highly on this question. However,  it does highlight  the need of Centres and  their candidates to focus  more clearly on explanation rather  than description.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two factors (Morley-Minto to be  explained for maximum marks).  Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Morley-Minto Reforms became law in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act. The importance of the Councils which were  enlarged was  to ensure that Indian  legislators were  given  a chance to express their opinions.  The British also  accepted the right of Muslims to have  a separate electorate. However  there  were  other  attempts to solve  the  problems in the  sub-  continent during these years. The Lucknow  Pact  of 1916  as an  agreement between the  Muslims and Hindus  which placed a number of political demands to the British government in an attempt to show  a united  front and  produce common aims.  Little was done by the British government about the sub-continent during  the  First World War but  shortly afterwards in 1919  came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.  These Reforms disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had  hoped for greater concessions.  Central  government reserved sweeping powers for itself with only minor concessions for the locals.  The Reforms did hold out concessions to political parties provided that  they  accepted the  right of the  British to remain  in control.  The Rowlatt Act of the same year increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest  without a warrant  and  detention without bail.

 

 

 

Q Explain why the Lucknow Pact  of 1916 came about. [7]                                               (J2006/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (b), the reasons explained for the Lucknow Pact  coming  about were  rather limited.  Most candidates failed  to score more  than  Level 3/5, with only the  very good scoring higher.  Many candidates tended to write about the terms  of the Lucknow Pact,  which were not strictly required by the question.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Muslims and Hindus wanted to work together on constitutional reform.  The Muslim League and  the  Congress agreed to co-operate to persuade the  British government to accept their demands. The LP was an agreement on a scheme of constitutional reforms reached between Congress and  the  ML. Both realised that  co-operation  was  the  only way to get  the  British

 

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government to agree to self-rule.  For the first time Hindus acknowledged that Muslims had the right to a separate electorate and  was therefore seen as a beacon of hope for the future.  They believed that  by holding  the sessions of both  the  Congress and  the  Muslim League in one place, feelings of goodwill and friendship would be generated between the two communities.

 

 

 

Q ‘Bengal was partitioned in 1905 because of geographical factors.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14]                                                                                                                                            (J2006/P1/2c)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part  (c) there  were  a number of problems.  The question focused on the  reasons for the  Partition of Bengal.  For those candidates who had  been adequately prepared for the  examination this  caused few problems for them  and  many  answers from these candidates were focused, accurate and relevant. However there were many candidates who saw the words  Partition of Bengal and  proceeded to write all they knew about its origins, causes and  events leading up to its reversal mainly in chronological order.  As a result  many answers were  merely  descriptive and  only partially relevant, often gaining  no more  than  half marks as a result.  Equally, there  were also many candidates who having  explained a number of reasons for Partition (and  many  did this well) then  proceeded to go further and  dealt  with the events/reasons for its reversal.  This only served to waste valuable time in the examination and  stored up problems for the final question.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two. Geographical factors to be  explained for maximum marks.  Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Of the 54 million people in Bengal 42 million were Hindus.  It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious  grounds and  also  because it was  becoming very large  and  producing significant administrative problems. By doing  this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at  the  time  of a  new  British government in power.                                                     The  Muslims believed that  partition  would  bring  an  end  to Hindu  oppression and  that  they  would  enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were  in a majority.  The Hindus  believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and  rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and  its influence in the new East Bengal.

 

 

 

Q Why was  the Simla Delegation of 1906  an important  turning  point for the Muslims of the sub-  continent? [7]                                                                                                                                       (N2006/P1/2b)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (b), candidates were required to explain why the Simla Delega- tion of 1906  was an important  turning-point for Muslims.  Some  only described the demands of the Simla Delegation. However, those candidates who understood the question found little difficulty in gaining  a good mark.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters  and  weigh- tage in all elected bodies were  accepted by the British.  This resulted in a sudden upturn  in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the 2 sides. It also  paved the  way for demands for a separate homeland with the  granting of a separate electorate. It also  guaranteed Muslims an independent role in the political process and  as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

 

 

 

Q Why did the British decide to reverse the partition of Bengal in 1911?  [7]                  (J2007/P1/2b)

 

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Examiner  Comments: In part (b), the question focused on the reasons for the reversal of the partition of Bengal.  For those candidates who had  been adequately prepared for the exami- nation, this caused few problems and many answers from such candidates were accurate and  relevant. However,  there were some who ignored the question (why) and  proceeded simply to write all they knew about the origins of Partition, together with the causes and  events leading up to its reversal – mainly in chronological order.  As a result,  many answers were at best only partially relevant, often failing to gain a level 3 mark.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Hindus’  objection to Partition  was  so  great  that  it caused the  British to reconsider it. Congress  opposed  it by holding  meetings and  there  were  mass rallies  which  put  pressure on the British government. They thought it was a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and  rule’ on the part of the British.  The Hindus  were  so angry that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and  started their boycott  of British goods under the  ‘Swadeshi Movement’.   There  was  also an  outbreak of terrorist  activities.   Further  Lord Curzon,  originator  of the  idea,  was no longer  viceroy so a change of policy was easier.

 

 

 

Q ‘The Morley-Minto reforms were more important than any other political developments between

1909 and 1919’.  Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14] (N2007/P1/3c)

 

Examiner Comments: Part (c) depended on candidates’ ability to explain their answers rather  than  adopt a narrative approach to their answer.  The question focused on  the  attempts of political developments to solve  the  problems in the  sub-continent between 1909  and  1919 and  required candidates to explain  the  importance of these. This type  of question does not require  a narrative approach. Candidates must  not fall into the trap  of describing answers to questions that clearly signal the need for an explanation since they are only going to be able to achieve a level 2 mark when they should be capable of reaching marks  within levels 3 or 4. It does highlight the need for Centres and  their candidates to focus  more clearly on explanation rather  than description especially with regard to political reform.

 

Marking Scheme:        The Morley-Minto Reforms  became law in 1909  as the  Indian  Councils Act. The importance of the Councils which were enlarged was to ensure that Indian legislators were given a chance to express their opinions. The British also accepted the right of Muslims to have a separate electorate. However there were other attempts to solve the problems in the sub-continent during  these years. The Lucknow Pact  of 1916 was an agreement between the Muslims and  Hindus  which placed a number of political demands to the British government in an  attempt to show  a  united  front and  produce common aims.    Little was  done by  the British government about the sub-continent during  the First World War but shortly afterwards in 1919  came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.  These Reforms  disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had hoped for greater concessions. Central government reserved sweep- ing powers for itself with only minor concessions for  the  locals.   The Reforms  did  hold  out concessions to political parties provided that they accepted the right of the British to remain  in control.  The Rowlatt Act of the same year  increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest  without a warrant  and  detention without bail.

 

 

 

Q Why did Congress oppose the Morley-Minto Reforms  of 1909?  [7]                              (N2008/P1/2b)

 

Examiner  Comments:  In part  (b),  candidates were  required to explain  why Congress op- posed the Morley-Minto Reforms of 1909.  Many responses were good and  candidates clearly

 

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knew their facts.  However,  some candidates struggled to explain  the importance of separate electorates and self-rule  to opposition. As a result,  many  struggled to reach a good Level 3 mark.

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The British intended that the Indians could  voice  their opinions in the Councils but Congress wanted more responsibility which  the  government were  not prepared to give.  This annoyed many  who were  looking towards self-rule.  The British accepted the right of Muslims to have  separate electorates which  also  annoyed some Hindus  who saw  it as a concession too far. Some  Hindus  also  resented the relative  high position  of Muslims in the Councils despite their much  smaller  numbers.

 

 

Q Why was the Muslim League established in 1906?  [7]                                                    (J2009/P1/3b)

 

Examiner  Comments:  In (b),  the  question required candidates to explain  why the  Muslim League was established in 1906.  Again this was a well known topic and  few candidates had  many problems scoring a Level 3 mark.  However  for some lengthy  answers that went back to the foundation of the Congress party were unnecessary and  little or no credit  for such detail was forthcoming in most cases.

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The belief among some that Muslim rights would not be advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. They saw it as an organisation which would only advance Hindu views.  Congress was demanding that India should be  treated as a cultural  whole and  Hindi should be  declared the  official language.  By not organising a Muslim group,  they  saw  that they would continue to be  disorganised and disunited. Even more worrying to some Muslims was  the growth of tiny extreme Hindu nationalist  groups demanding that Muslims be  forcibly converted to Hinduism.  Equally, they saw a way to increase their influence with the British and  gain  better terms  for Muslims (because many  British saw  India as organised and  divided on religious  lines).  Therefore,  a number of prominent Muslims founded the League.

 

 

Q ‘The reasons for partitioning  Bengal in 1905  were  more  important  than  those that  caused its reversal in 1911.’ Do you agree? Explain your answer. [14]                                                              (J2009/P1/3c)

Examiner  Comments:  Part  (c) was  a  well known  topic.   Many candidates who were  well prepared found little difficulty in explaining the  reasons why Bengal was  partitioned in 1905 and then reunited in 1911.  For those candidates who explained each part, a Level 4 mark was available. However,  many were unable to consider both sides well and,  as a result,  were only able  to score 9 or 10 marks.

Marking Scheme: Explains  BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Partition

Supporters of Partition among the British thought it would be sensible to divide up the province for administrative convenience. Bengal was very large  and  producing significant administra- tive problems.  By doing  this, the British felt that  the  province would be  easier to administer, especially at the time of a new British government in power.  Many Muslims supported Partition because they believed that it would give them dominance in the new province. Of the 54 million people in pre-Partition Bengal, 42 million were Hindus,  but a new separate East Bengal would have  a Muslim majority.

Reversal

 

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Congress argued that  Partition was  part  of the  British ‘divide and  rule’ policy  which  would weaken India and Indian unity. Major protest (meetings and mass rallies) organised by Congress, supported by many  Hindus,  was  so  great  that  it caused the  British to reconsider it.  Many Hindus started a mass boycott of British goods under the ‘Swadeshi Movement’.  A few extreme Hindus  adopted terrorist behaviour and,  among other attacks, attempted to assassinate Lord Minto.

 

 

 

Q Source: Strikes  and  demonstrations caused the British much  worry but this increased when rioting and  banks were  attacked in Amritsar  in 1919.   The British military commander in the area  was determined to restore order.

 

Describe the Amritsar Massacre. [4]                                                                 (Specimen 2010/P1/2a)

 

Marking Scheme: Reward  each correct statement with 1 mark.  2 marks  can  be  awarded for a developed statement. Candidates may refer to:

General Dyer, banning of public meetings in the city, 20000 crowd gathered, Jallianwala Bagh  park, narrow entrances etc., no warning, troops fired on crowd, the well, high casualties, further measures followed the meeting, response of Dyer.

 

 

 

Q Why was  the Simla Delegation of 1906  an important  turning  point for the Muslims of the sub  continent? [7]                                                                                                    (Specimen 2010/P1/2b)

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters  and  weigh- tage in all elected bodies were  accepted by the British.  This resulted in a sudden upturn  in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the two sides. Also paved the  way for demands for a  separate homeland with the  granting of a separate electorate. Also guaranteed Muslims independent role in the political process and  as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

 

 

 

Q ‘The Muslim League was established in 1906 because the Hindus had their own political party.’ Do you agree or disagree? Give reasons for your answer. [14]                                                     (J2010/P1/2c)

 

Examiner  Comments: Part (c) on the reasons for the foundation of the Muslim League pro- duced mixed responses. This was  a very specific question that  demanded equally  specific arguments and those candidates who wrote narrative accounts of the period of time up to 1914 found  that they were  unable to progress beyond Level 2.  There  were  those candidates who produced unnecessarily lengthy descriptions that went back to the foundation of the Congress party and  for many  little or no credit  for such detail  was  forthcoming beyond Level 2.  Many candidates found difficulty in formulating  their answers to answer the question, but there  was a significant number who were able  to relate the requirements of the Muslims to form their own political party in response to the  Hindu reaction to the  partition of Bengal and  the  Congress party’s view that saw them representing the interest of all Indians. For these candidates a Level

4 mark attracting 9 or 10 was common.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  at least  two factors including the  Hindu party.  Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Congress was  demanding that  India should be  treated as a cultural  and  political whole and  Hindi should  be  declared the  official language.  It was  seen as an  organisation which

 

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would only advance Hindu views.  Muslim rights  would not be  advanced if they continued to rely on the Indian National Congress. By not organising a Muslim group they would continue to be disorganised and  disunited. They didn’t feel that had  the same influence as Congress with the British. Also the Hindus  were beginning to protest against the partition of Bengal and  the Muslims saw this as a sign of the influence the Hindus  had  and they were worried about their own interests. Even more  worrying was  the growth of extreme Hindu nationalist groups who demanded that Muslims be forcibly converted to Hinduism.  Therefore  a number of prominent Muslim leaders founded the Muslim League.

 

 

 

Q Source: Bengal was  the  largest of the  provinces of India.   It was  a huge area  to govern  as one  unit and  the British government decided that  it should be  partitioned in 1905.   This had  the  effect  of causing conflict  between the  Muslims  and  Hindus,  especially as the  Muslims welcomed partition.  The Hindus  decided to form the Swadeshi Movement.

 

What was the Swadeshi Movement? [4]                                                                          (N2010/P1/3a)

 

Examiner  Comments:  Again,  this was  a  popular question with a  good level of knowledge shown  by most  candidates  generally achieving 3 or 4 marks  on the  part  (a) short  answer question on the Swadeshi Movement.

 

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

A boycott  of British goods by the Hindus  during  the time of the Partition of Bengal (1905–11), British cloth  thrown  onto  bonfires, wearing of locally produced clothes, series of strikes  by Indian workers  especially in Calcutta.

 

 

 

Q Why was the Simla Deputation of 1906 an important  event for the Muslims of the subcontinent? [7]                                                                                                                                           (N2010/P1/3b)

 

Examiner  Comments: In part (b), the question required candidates to explain  why the Simla Deputation of 1906 was an important  event  for Muslims.  This was a well known topic and  few candidates had  many  problems scoring a Level 3 mark.  However,  for some candidates who strayed unnecessarily into details about the Partition of Bengal and  too much  detail  on the foundation of the Muslim League, marks  were harder to come by. Nevertheless answers were generally good on this question.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  reasons.

The Muslim demands for separate representation, election by only Muslim voters  and  weigh- tage in all elected bodies were  accepted by the British.  This resulted in a sudden upturn  in Muslim-British relations and helped to remove the previous bad feelings between the 2 sides. It also  paved the  way for demands for a separate homeland with the  granting of a separate electorate. It also  guaranteed Muslims an independent role in the political process and  as a result led to the formation of the All-Indian Muslim League later in the year.

 

 

 

Q Source: Towards the end of the First World War the British decided that firm action was needed to keep a grip  on India,  especially with the  threat  of renewed violence.  During  the  war the British had  the Defence of India Act to help keep order.  Once this Act had  expired the Rowlatt Act was introduced.

 

Describe the Rowlatt Act. [4]                                                                                            (J2011/P1/3a)

 

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Examiner  Comments:  The part  (a) short  answer question on the  Rowlatt Act was  well an- swered and  many candidates gained 3 or 4 marks.

 

Marking Scheme: Candidates might refer to:

1919,  people could  be  tried  in private  by 3 High Court  Judges, no right of appeal, people could  be  ordered  to live in a  particular place, stopped from holding  meetings or arrested without warrant  and  kept  in prison  without trial, fear  of a  communist style  revolution,  Indian protests.

 

 

 

Q ‘Partition or reversal?’ Were the reasons why Bengal was  partitioned in 1905  more  important  than those regarding its reversal in 1911?  Explain your answer. [14]                                                (J2011/P1/3c)

 

Examiner  Comments: Part (c) was  a well known topic  and  the  question on the  reasons for the partition and reversal of Bengal was well answered. Many candidates found little difficulty in explaining the  reasons  why  Bengal was  partitioned in 1905  and  then  reversed in 1911. Candidates who were able  to go into detail and explain  each side  achieved a mark in Level 4.

 

Marking Scheme: Explains  BOTH. Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

Partition

Of the 54 million people in Bengal, 42 million were Hindus.  It seemed sensible to divide up the province on religious  grounds and  also  because it was  becoming very large  and  producing significant administrative problems. By doing  this it was felt that the province would be easier to administer especially at  the  time  of a  new  British government in power.                                                                           The  Muslims believed that  partition  would  bring  an  end  to Hindu  oppression and  that  they  would  enjoy true recognition in a province in which they were  in a majority.  The Hindus  believed that the partition would come about as part of the British ‘divide and  rule’ policy which would weaken Hindu unity and  its influence in the new East Bengal.

Reversal

The Hindus’ objection to Partition was  so great  that it caused the British to reconsider it. The Hindus  opposed it by holding  meetings and  mass rallies  which  put  pressure on the  British government.  They thought it was  a deliberate attempt to ‘divide and  rule’ on the  part  of the British. The Hindus  were so angry  that they attempted to assassinate Lord Minto and  started their boycott  of British goods under the  ‘Swadeshi Movement’.   There was  also  an  outbreak of terrorist  activities.Part (c) was  a well known topic  and  the  question on the  reasons for the partition and  reversal of Bengal was  well answered.  Many candidates found  little difficulty in explaining  the  reasons why Bengal was  partitioned in 1905  and  then  reversed in 1911. Candidates who were  able  to go into detail  and  explain  each side  achieved a mark in Level

4.

 

 

 

Q ‘The Montague-Chelmsford reforms were more important than any other political developments between 1909  and  1919.’  Do you  agree or disagree?  Give  reasons for your  answer.  [7] (N2011/P1/3c)

 

Examiner Comments: In part (c), candidates who had revised and had adequately prepared for the  examination  this question did  well.   Answers from these candidates were  focused, accurate and  relevant and many scored a high Level 4 mark by ensuring that they explained and  commented on the importance of each political development in turn, including the Mon- tague–Chelmsford reforms.  The candidates who merely described the political developments (often very accurately) could  not achieve a mark beyond Level 2.

 

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Marking Scheme:  Explains  at  least  two factors including MC reforms.            Also produces a judgement or evaluation.

The Morley-Minto Reforms became law in 1909 as the Indian Councils Act. The importance of the Councils (which were enlarged) was to ensure that Indian legislators were given a chance to express their opinions.  The British also  accepted the right of Muslims to have  a separate electorate. However,  there  were  other  attempts to solve  the  problems in the  sub-  continent during these years. The Lucknow Pact  of 1916  was  an agreement between the Muslims and Hindus  which placed a number of political demands to the British government, in an attempt to show  a united  front and  produce common aims.  Little was done by the British government about the sub-continent during  the  First World War, but shortly afterwards in 1919  came the Montague-Chelmsford Reforms.  These Reforms disappointed the Muslims and Hindus as they had  hoped for greater concessions. Central  government reserved sweeping powers for itself, with only minor concessions for the locals.  The Reforms did hold out concessions to political parties, provided that they accepted the right of the British to remain  in control.  The Rowlatt Act of the same year increased the resentment of the political parties by including the right of arrest  without a warrant  and  detention without bail.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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